Archive for the ‘GREAT LAKES SHIPWRECKS’ Category

GREAT LAKES SHIPWRECKS

January 17, 2008

Great Lakes, Great Stories:
Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
October 6 – December 2, 2007
TEACHER RESOURCES
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
2
Introduction
Welcome to Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage at the Macomb Cultural Center. Students will discover both the universal and the unique about these fantastic and beautiful bodies of water through a series of exhibits employing video, audio, photos, posters and artifacts about the Lakes. Great Lakes, Great Stories covers Michigan history and life on the lakes throughout the years, as well as the evolution of the shipping industry and the changing role of lighthouses on the lakes; it also shows how people use the lakes today, and what we can all do to preserve our Great Lakes.
Diverse topics include: geology, the shipping industry, history of Native Americans in the area and their relationship with Europeans, lighthouses on the Lakes, famous shipwrecks, conservation and preservation of the Great Lakes.
This packet of information is designed to assist teachers in making the most of their students’ visit to the Macomb Cultural Center. Contained in the packet are:
1) An outline of the exhibit
2) Great Lakes facts, information and related activities
3) Lesson plans related to The Great Lakes
4) Websites for Great Lakes research
5) A resource list with addresses and information
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
October 6-December 2, 2007
Table of Contents
Page
Part I: Exhibit Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Part II: Great Lakes Facts and Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
What Makes the Great Lakes Great? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Geology and Glacial Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
The Great Lakes Superhighway: The Shipping Industry on the Great Lakes. . . . . . . . . 12
Important Events in the History of Watercraft on the Lakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
The Mackinac Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Lighthouses: Caution Lights of the Superhighway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Lifesaving and Rescue Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Pilothouse: The Ship’s Navigation Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Life of the Lakes: A Guide to the Great Lakes Fishery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Part III: Lesson Plans for the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Michigan History on a String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
When Glaciers Covered Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Where did Michigan’s First People Live? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Canoe Routes of Native Americans in Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Make a Lighthouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Great Lakes Shipping: The Story of the Edmund Fitzgerald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Water Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Part IV: Websites for Further Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Part V: More Great Lakes Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
October 6-December 2, 2007
PART I: EXHIBIT OUTLINE
Welcome to Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
• Dive into the history, legacy and romance of the Great Lakes.
• Discover how these remarkable lakes at the heart of North America shaped our state…and our southeast Michigan community.
• Delve into their very beginnings, from the prehistoric formation by glaciers to today’s challenges and successes in preserving this precious environmental and cultural resources.
Our displays and exhibits highlight:
~ Carving Out North America’s Interior Coast
~ Great Lakes as the Maritime Superhighway
~ Lighthouses: Caution Lights of the Superhighway
~ Shipwrecks: The Challenge of the Lakes’ Great Gales
~ Great Lakes Ecology and Preservation
PART II: GREAT LAKES FACTS AND INFORMATION
What Makes the Great Lakes Great?
The Great Lakes — Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario — and their connecting channels form the largest fresh surface water system on earth. If you stood on the moon, you could see the lakes and recognize the familiar shape. Covering more than 94,000 square miles, these freshwater seas hold an estimated 6 quadrillion gallons of water, about one-fifth of the world’s fresh surface water supply. This system greatly affects our way of life, as well as all aspects of the natural environment, from weather and climate, to wildlife and habitat. Yet for all their size and power, the Great Lakes are fragile. In the past, this fragile nature wasn’t recognized, and the lakes were mistreated for economic gain, placing the ecosystem under tremendous stress from our activities. Today, we understand that our health and our children’s inheritance depend on our collective efforts to wisely manage our complex ecosystem.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lake Huron
Lake Huron is the third largest of the lakes by volume, with 850 cubic miles of water. Lake Huron is connected to Lake Michigan, joined together by the wide Straits of Mackinac. The Huron lakeshore extends 3,827 miles, and is characterized by shallow, sandy beaches and the rocky shores of Georgian Bay. The lake measures 206 miles across and 183 miles north to south, with an average depth of 195 feet (approximately 750 feet, maximum). Shoreline map of Lake Huron courtesy of NOAA
Did you know…
Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron is recorded as the largest freshwater island in the world covering 1,068 square miles? Part of the Canadian province of Ontario, Manitoulin is located in the northern half of Lake Huron. It separates Georgian Bay and the lower portion of Lake Huron.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is similar to Lake Erie in length and breadth (193 miles by 53 miles). Yet with its greater average depth (approximately 283 feet), Lake Ontario holds almost four times the volume (395 cubic miles). Shoreline map of Lake Ontario courtesy of NOAA.
Did you know…
The Welland Canal connects Lakes Ontario and Erie? The canal was necessary because the Niagara River, the natural connection between the lakes, has impassable falls and rapids (Niagara Falls, to name one). Therefore, the canal forms an important link for the shipping industry in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway system.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan, the second largest Great Lake by volume with just under 1,180 cubic miles of water. Approximately 118 miles wide and 307 miles long, Lake Michigan has more than 1,600 miles of shoreline. Averaging 279 feet in depth, the lake reaches 925 feet at its deepest point. Shoreline map of Lake Michigan courtesy of NOAA.
Did you know…
Lake Michigan is the only Great Lake contained completely within the United States? All other Great Lakes share a border with Canada.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lake Erie
Lake Erie is the smallest of the Great Lakes in volume (119 cubic miles) and is exposed to the greatest effects from urbanization and agriculture. Measuring 241 miles across and 57 miles from north to south, the lake’s surface is just under 10,000 square miles, with 871 miles of shoreline. The average depth of Lake Erie is only about 62 feet (210 feet, maximum) making it the warmest of the Great Lakes. Shoreline map of Lake Erie courtesy of NOAA.
Did you know…
Up to 90 percent of Lake Erie freezes during the winter? This is the most of any of the Great Lakes, however, wind and water movement over bodies of water as large and deep as the Great Lakes make it unlikely the lakes have ever frozen over completely for any significant length of time.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lake Superior
Not only is Lake Superior the largest of the Great Lakes, it also has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in the world. It could fill all the other Great Lakes plus three additional Lake Eries. With an average depth approaching 500 feet, Superior also is the coldest and deepest (1,332 feet, maximum) of the Great Lakes. The lake stretches approximately 350 miles from west to east, and 160 miles north to south, with a shoreline almost 2,800 miles long. Shoreline map of Lake Superior courtesy of NOAA.
Did you know…
Lake Superior was given the name Kitchi-gummi (or Gitchee Gumee) by the Chippewa, also known as Ojibwe Indians that made their home on the lands surrounding the lake? The term means Great-water or Great-lake.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Great Lakes Geology
14,000 Years Ago
* The Laurentide glacier began retreating and melting resulting in the formation of the Great Lakes
* When the glaciers melted, the “meltwater” filled huge holes left by the glaciers

9,000 Years Ago
* The first inhabitants of the Great Lakes basin arrived crossing the land bridge from Asia or South America

7,000 Years Ago
* Descendants of the first settlers were using copper from the south shore of Lake Superior and establishing hunting and fishing communities

4,000 Years Ago
* Lake levels dropped to the current levels they are today
* Sleeping Bear Dunes formed
Carving Out North America’s Interior Coast
About a billion years ago, a fracture in the earth running from what is now Oklahoma to Lake Superior generated volcanic activity that almost split North America. Over a period of 20 million years, lava intermittently flowed from the fracture. Molten magma below the highlands of what is now Lake Superior spewed out to its sides, causing the highlands to sink and form a mammoth rock basin that would one day hold Lake Superior. The region went from fire to ice with the arrival of the glaciers, which advanced and retreated several times over the last 5 million years.
Sources: Introducing Michigan’s Past: An Overview for Teachers, Michigan History Magazine
http://www.michigan.gov/hal
http://www.great-lakes.net
http://www.abouthegreatlakes.com
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Great Lakes Super Highway: the Shipping Industry of the Great Lakes
Shipping on the Great Lakes began in 1679 when the first ship to sail the upper lakes, the Griffon, was launched. By the mid-19th century, the bulk shipping industry had begun on the Great Lakes with the transport of iron ore, wheat and coal. The late 19th century was the Golden Age of Great Lakes shipping when the lines of ships moving up and down the lakes were similar to the bumper-to-bumper traffic of today’s urban roadways. The “Era of Elegance” came alive in the first half of the 20th century, as passengers enjoyed traveling the Great Lakes aboard grand steamships. Since then, the number of ships on the Great Lakes has declined, but U.S. and Canadian ships as well as dozens of international vessels still regularly travel through the lakes carrying primarily iron ore, coal and limestone.
A “thousand-footer” freighter can carry the equivalent cargo of 700 train cars.
Important Events in the History of Watercraft on the Lakes
1600 – The water craft of people indigenous to the Great Lakes region included bark and dugout canoes, skin boats, and simple rafts. Under the French and English, birch bark canoes became the workhorse of the fur trade.
1679 – Robert Sieur de La Salle built the 45-ton Griffon on the Niagara River. It was the first large sailing vessel on the upper Great Lakes. After being laden with furs in Green Bay, Wisconsin, the ship disappeared with all hands on the return trip to Niagara.
1740 – The French had four ships on Lake Ontario.
1770 – 16 vessels sailed the Great Lakes on Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.
1797 – The first American vessel built on Lake Erie was constructed and named the Washington.
1816 – Steam vessels were introduced to the lakes.
1818 – The Walk-in-the-Water was the first steamer on Lake Erie, and established a regular route to Detroit.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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1825 – The Erie Canal opened, linking the Hudson River and Lake Erie, opening a critical link to the west. As a result commerce in the Great Lakes region grew as well as burgeoning passenger traffic. Large numbers of eastern settlers moved to the Great Lakes region, as well as foreign immigrants coming to this country by way of Canada or the American East Coast.
1841 – The first propeller steamship, the 138-ton Vandalia, operated on the Great Lakes, ushering in a new era in lake navigation.
1844 – The era of the “Palace Steamers” emerged with 25 of these 300 ft. beautifully appointed, lavish vessels operating on the lakes. Most of them ran from Buffalo to Detroit or Chicago and operated in tandem with the emerging railroad system.
1855 – The steamer Illinois became the first boat to pass through the Soo Locks, a canal that bypassed the rapids of the St. Mary’s River connecting travel between Lake Superior and the other Great Lakes.
1856 – The Soo Locks released a flood of copper and iron ore from the western UP that was an important factor in winning the Civil War and fueled the American Industrial Revolution in the days after the war. The first cargo of iron ore ever shipped from the Lake Superior region was transported by the steamer Ontonagon from the Cleveland Iron Mining Company. There were 107 steamers, 135 propellers, 56 barques, 108 brigs, 850 schooners for a total of 1,256 ships on the lakes.
1857 – The Panic of 1857 ruined passenger business on the lakes, and the entire fleet of Palace Steamers withdrew from service. Railroads crossed the country and cut into the profitable freight businesses on the lakes.
1865 – After the Panic of 1857, many of the idle passenger steamships were converted into lumber barges, and a new class of small, specialized screw-steamer tugboats evolved including the 115-foot Trader built at Marine City on the St. Clair River. These tugs assisted the schooners that needed towing up and down rivers, and into harbors. Nearly 600 steambarges were built between 1870 and 1900.
1890 – Sailing craft were entirely displaced by steamers, except in the lumber trade.
1902 – The most important milestone for the Great Lakes bulk carriers was the development of the self-unloading equipment. It was first installed on the Hennepin and integrated into the Wyandotte in 1908.
1930 – Three quarters of the passenger lines were out of business, struggling under reduced schedules, or reduced to tourist-only or railroad-only traffic.
1968 – Poe Lock (part of the Soo Locks) was re-built after the Saint Lawrence Seaway opened. It can handle ships carrying 72,000 tons of cargo. The Poe is the only lock that can handle the 1000 foot freighters used on the upper lakes.
1981 – Paul R. Tregurtha is launched as the longest ship on the lakes at 1,013 feet.
2007 – Where once there were thousands of ships carrying passengers and cargoes, there are now only about 80 active bulk carriers, and several dozen local ferries on the Great Lakes today.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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The Mackinac Bridge
Hailed as one of the most outstanding engineering achievements of the century, the Mackinac Bridge celebrates its 50th anniversary this year with much to celebrate. Designed by Dr. David B. Steinman, the “Mighty Mac” is currently the third longest suspension bridge in the world, and the longest suspension bridge in the Western Hemisphere. Rising 552 feet (55 stories!) above the Straits of Mackinac, where Lakes Michigan and Huron meet, this steel superstructure officially opened to traffic on November 1, 1957.
Before the Mackinac Bridge was constructed, travelers between Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas had to cross the Straits via ferry, a ride which on busy summer weekends or the start of hunting season in the fall, would have carloads of weary travelers waiting in line for as long as 24 hours to catch a ferry! The 100 millionth crossing of the bridge took place on June 25, 1998.
Sources: http://www.great-lakes.net; http://www.mackinacbridge.org
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lighthouses: Caution Lights of the Superhighway
In 1825 the first lighthouse was constructed in what would become the state of Michigan. Built on Lake Huron, the Fort Gratiot Light was named for a nearby military outpost. Over the next 170 years the nature of Great Lakes navigation, the kinds of ships on the lakes, and the cargoes being hauled over water would change, however, the lights themselves remain beacons in the night that aid sailors throughout the Great Lakes.
Lighthouse Design and Construction
Between 1852 and 1860 twenty-six new lights were erected on the Great Lakes. The Civil War and its aftermath greatly slowed construction of new lights during the 1860s. By the beginning of the twentieth century the Lighthouse Board oversaw 334 major lights, 67 fog signals, and 563 buoys on the Great Lakes. Throughout the early years of the twentieth century the Lighthouse Board and the new Lighthouse Service continued to build new lights. By 1925 virtually all of the Great Lakes lighthouses that exist today had been constructed.
The Lights
In the first half of the nineteenth century, Michigan’s lighthouses generally used an Argand lamp that burned whale oil. A far superior apparatus was introduced by French physicist Augustin Fresnel in 1822. Looking a bit like a beehive, the Fresnel lens was a bright, single beam of light that was far superior to anything else available in its day. A variety of different lights replaced the Fresnel lens and over time electricity became the new standard for lighthouses and other illuminated navigational aids.
The Keepers
Beginning with the lighting of the Fort Gratiot Light in 1825, lighthouse keepers kept the lights lit each night. Although a keeper’s work was sometimes glamorized in the press, the daily tasks of a keeper were very routine in an often isolated, uncomfortable setting. A typical day at a lighthouse was filled with cleaning, fixing, and recording, as well standing watch and making sure the light burned brightly. Automation eventually replaced keepers and in 1983 Michigan’s last keeper-tended light was automated. Today all the lights on the lakes are maintained through occasional visits by Coast Guard maintenance crews and many groups are committed to the effort of maintaining and preserving the Beacons in the Night around the Great Lakes.
Lighthouse Preservation
Beacons are now subjected to deterioration by the elements and vandalism. Many have been saved and are private homes, museums, or part of a county, state or national park site for recreational use. Numerous lights also still play an important role as private aides to navigation for small craft. Here are some things you can do to make a difference.
􀂃 Educate Yourself. Read about lighthouse history and preservation methods. Learn about laws and regulations governing the lighthouse disposal process and lighthouse ownership. Keep track of information you find in the newspaper, in magazines, or at workshops and conferences. Contact the Michigan Lighthouse Project to obtain information about the lighthouse transfer process, funding opportunities and more.
􀂃 Visit Lighthouses. The best way to learn about Michigan’s lighthouses is to actually see them. While you are there, offer a donation for lighthouse upkeep or for the small museums and historical societies housed in several of these landmarks.
􀂃 Get Involved. Join a local nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving the lighthouse of your choice. Ask how you can participate by donating your time, goods or money to the group. In addition, join national and statewide preservation advocacy groups such as the Great Lakes Lighthouse Keepers Association, the Michigan Historic Preservation Network, or the the National Trust for Historic Preservation to keep abreast of current issues related to lighthouse preservation. Attend their meetings and conferences and read their newsletters and other mailings. They can be reached at the following addresses:
Great Lakes Lighthouse Keepers Association 206 Lake Street P. O. Box 219 Mackinaw City, MI 49701 (231) 436-5580 (231) 436-5466 (fax)
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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E-mail: gllka@aol.com
Michigan Historic Preservation Network 107 E. Grand River Avenue Lansing, MI 48906
(517) 371-8080 (517) 371-9090 (fax)
E-mail: info@mhpn.org
National Trust for Historic Preservation 1785 Massachusetts Avenue Washington, D.C. 20036
􀂃 Buy a Lighthouse License Plate. With its striking red-and-white stripes, the White Shoal Lighthouse is set against the blue waters of Lake Michigan to symbolize the need to preserve Michigan’s lighthouses. The legend on the plate reads “SAVE OUR LIGHTS.” A portion of the cost of this Michigan fund-raising license plate introduced in 2001 supports lighthouse preservation.
Source: Clarke Historical Library at Central Michigan University
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Life Saving and Rescue Stations
Sailing and navigation on the Great Lakes has proven to be hazardous. The U. S. Life Saving Service was established in 1849 “for the better preservation of life and property from shipwrecks,” under the supervision of the Revenue Marine Corps. Their duties included the rescue of crew, passengers, and cargo ships in disasters as well as assisting in salvage operations. When the U. S. Coast Guard was created in 1915, it took over the responsibilities of the U.S. Life Saving Service.
Did you know…
* in 1871 Sumner Kimball was appointed as the Chief of the Revenue Marine Division of the Department of the Treasury and recommended the establishment of lifesaving stations on the Great Lakes?
* the organization of the Life-Saving Service was authorized by Congress in 1874 into 12 districts, including 3 on the Great Lakes?
* in 1878 these lifesaving stations became a separate agency of the Department of the Treasury known as the United States Life-Saving Service?
* the United States Life-Saving Service enabled the shipping industry to rapidly grow on the Great Lakes?
* when the United States Life-Saving Service ended in 1915, 63 Great Lakes stations were in operation?
* during the years of its operation, the Great Lakes Life-Saving Service contended with 9,763 disasters, saving 55,639 people and $110,038,860 in property?
* over the course of the United States Life-Saving Service, 20 brave employees gave their lives while performing their duties?
* the organization that Mr. Kimball formed, provided the basis for the new search and rescue organization of the U.S. Coast Guard?
Sources: Bowling Green State University and the Library of Congress
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes
In the decades since LaSalle’s Griffon was lost on Lake Huron, literally hundreds of vessels large and small have met disastrous ends on the Great Lakes and their connecting waterways. Each represents more than a shipwreck – each is the story of a valiant fight for survival against the forces of wind, waves, fog, fire, snow and ice. The Lakes themselves tell the story.
Lake Erie
The worst disasters on Lake Erie:
• the burning of the passenger steamer, Erie, on August 9, 1841, with the loss of about 150 lives
• the burning of the passenger steamer, G. P. Griffith, on June 17, 1850, with about 250 lives lost
• the sinking of the passenger steamer, Atlantic, after a collision with the steamer Ogdensburg, on August 20 1852, with about 175 lives lost.
The first steam vessel on the upper Great Lakes was a ship named Walk-in-the-Water built in 1818. She ran for only three years before a severe Lake Erie storm destroyed her in 1821.
Lake Huron
The story of LaSalle’s ship Griffon, the first ship on the upper Great Lakes, has been told often in the last three centuries. Constructed in 1679, it ventured through the Detroit River, up through Lake Huron and into Green Bay area of Lake Michigan to pick up a load of furs before it sailed into mystery and history on the return journey.
The worst marine disasters on Lake Huron include:
• the loss of the steamer, Pewabic, in a collision with her sister ship, the Meteor, off Alpena on August 9, 1865; about 100 lives lost
• the sinking of the steamship, Asia, in Georgian Bay waters, September 14, 1882 with the loss of 123 people.
The worst Great Lakes storm in recorded history did its most damage on Lake Huron on November 8 – 11, 1913. Eight steel freighters and their entire crews were lost; three have never been located.
Lake Michigan
There are approximately 950 shipwrecks in Lake Michigan. The first shipwreck on Lake Michigan was the schooner, Hercules, wrecked in 1818 with all hands. By the time a Native American group found the human remains along the Chicago shoreline a few days later, wolves and bears had mutilated the bodies beyond recognition.
Lake Michigan has had more than its fair share of tragic ship losses including:
• the sinking of the steamer Lady Elgin after a collision with the schooner Augusta, September 8, 1860 with about 300 lives lost
• the steamer Seabird caught fire on April 9, 1868 with over 100 lost lives
• the steamer Phoenix caught fire near Sheboygan, Wisconsin on November 21, 1847 while carrying 250 Dutch settlers to the western frontier, killing 200 men, women and children
• the steamer Alpena went missing in a storm near Holland, Michigan on October 15, 1880 killing all 80 on board.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lake Ontario
Two-thirds or more of the shipwrecks that occurred on Lake Ontario during the schooner and early steam era, took place in areas of treacherous shoals and bars such as Psychic Shoal, Gull Bar and Poplar Bar. These areas contain the wrecks of a number of two and three-masted schooners, brigantines, barges and steamers including:
• the Manola Steel steamer, built in 1890 and sank on Dec. 3, 1918 by foundering in a storm while under tow. She lies upside-down in 45-80′ of water on the rocky floor of Lake Ontario; eleven lives were lost.
• the Florence steam tug sank on November 14, 1933 in some 80′ of water off Timber Island with no loss of life.
• the Annie Falconer 2-masted schooner, built in Kingston, Ontario in 1867, sank November 12, 1904 by foundering with a cargo of coal.
• the Olive Branch sank on the night of September 30, 1880 in 100′ of water, taking the lives of the captain and crew.
Lake Superior
There are approximately 500 shipwrecks in Lake Superior, most them as yet undiscovered. Many will never be discovered because they no longer exist, having been dashed to thousands of small pieces due to several notoriously dangerous shoal areas in remote and distant parts of Lake Superior.
The Lake Superior shipwrecks include:
• the side-wheel steamer, Superior, which was built in 1845 and was one of the last ships portaged around the rapids at Sault Ste. Marie and into Lake Superior before the Soo Locks were built in 1853-55. In October of 1865, the 184-foot-long Superior was crushed near the high cliffs of Pictured Rocks National Seashore after losing her rudder, resulting in one of the worst loss-of-life wrecks on the lake, with 35 of the 55 people on board killed.
• the most famous shipwreck in the Great Lakes proper is that of the steel freighter, Edmund Fitzgerald, that sank in 529 feet of water off Whitefish Point on November 10, 1975, with the loss of all 29 men on board. No body was ever recovered. (See also the Edmund Fitzgerald exhibit)
Sources: 100 Best Great Lakes Shipwrecks, Cris Kohl, Vol. II, 1998 and http://www.pec.on.ca/other/scuba.html
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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The S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald
The legend of the S. S. Edmund Fitzgerald remains the most mysterious and controversial of all shipwreck tales heard around the Great Lakes. Her story is surpassed in books, film and media only by that of the Titanic. At 729 feet and 13,632 gross tons she was the largest ship on the Great Lakes, for thirteen years, until 1971.
The Fitzgerald’s normal course during her productive life took her between Silver Bay, Minnesota, where she loaded taconite, to steel mills on the lower lakes in the Detroit and Toledo area. She was usually empty on her return trip to Silver Bay. On November 9, 1975 Fitzgerald was to transport a load of taconite from Superior, Wisconsin, to Zug Island, Detroit.
On November 10, 1975, the Edmund Fitzgerald was lost with her entire crew of 29 men on Lake Superior, 17 miles north-northwest of Whitefish Point, Michigan. Conflicting theories about the cause of the tragedy remain active today. The Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society’s (GLSHS) three expeditions to the wreck revealed that it is likely she “submarined” bow first into an enormous sea, as damage forward is indicative of a powerful, quick force to the superstructure. But what caused the ship to take on water, enough to lose buoyancy and dive to the bottom so quickly, without a single cry for help, cannot be determined. The bronze bell of the Fitzgerald was recovered by the GLSHS July 4, 1995.
Source: http://www.shipwreckmuseum.com
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Pilothouse: The Ship’s Navigation Center
A ship’s pilothouse is an enclosed area, usually on the bridge of a vessel, from which the vessel is controlled when under way. On many ships, especially military and cruise ships, the pilothouse is considerably larger and combined with a number of other control structures as the ship’s bridge. The bridge was often open to the elements, therefore a weatherproof pilothouse was provided to shelter the pilot, a ship’s navigation officer, while he issued commands to the wheelsman, engine room, and deck crew.
Can you find some of the items in our pilothouse?
􀂃 A binnacle, which is a case that supports and protects a ship’s compass, located near the helm.
􀂃 A chronometer, which is a time-keeping instrument allowing sailors to measure the stars against specific points in time, giving them their latitude and longitude. (or more simply, their position)
􀂃 The radio telegraph, which transmits telegraphic messages through radio waves, usually in Morse code.
􀂃 Widely used on ships, a gyrocompass is a compass which finds North by using a gyroscope instead of a magnet.
􀂃 The ship’s wheel which adjusts the angle of the rudder and controls the direction of the ship. It is also called the helm, together with the rest of the steering mechanism.
􀂃 An engine order telegraph is a device used on a ship to send signals from the bridge to the engine room, or to the station where the ship’s engines are controlled.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
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Life of the Lakes: A Guide to the Great Lakes Fishery
The Great Lakes provide a home to one of the world’s greatest freshwater fisheries. Great Lakes fisheries are defined as intricate webs of fish populations, their aquatic environments, and the people who use and enjoy them. These fisheries are important parts of the Life of the Lakes.
History of the Great Lakes Fisheries
The fisheries in the lakes became established during glacial times, thousands of years ago. Change continued with the arrival of explorers, traders and settlers, and with the increased human populations in the Great Lakes basin. Changes in the life of the lakes reflect the history of the Great Lakes region. Through the history of the fishery, we can understand the vitality and productivity of the lakes and those who lives were and are directly impacted by the lakes. Fishes serve as valuable indicators of environmental health and changes in fish populations have served as early warning signals of poor environmental quality.
Ecology of the Great Lakes
Ecology is the study of the interaction between abiotic (nonliving) and biotic (living) factors. The features of the lakes interact with the abiotic and biotic organisms to affect the amount and type of life that can be supported. Because of their size and varied geography, geology and ecology, the Great Lakes are comprised of sub-regions that vary in climate, sunlight, temperature, depth, nutrients, chemical composition, water movements, shoreline, and other physical and biological characteristics. Understanding the ecology of the Great Lakes requires the study of these characteristics.
Today’s Great Lakes Fisheries
Factors Influencing Today’s Great Lakes Fisheries
Social Changes
Technological Changes
Environmental Changes
Settlement
• Cultures mixing (Native, European)
• Immigration
• Population pressures
• Urbanization
Changes in Values Over Time
• Developing markets in eastern U.S. and Canada
• Rise of recreation and tourism
• Global markets, economic
• Environmentalism, sustainability
Land Use Patterns
• Logging, dams, canals
• Conversion of land from prairie and forest to agricultural, industrial and residential uses
• Sprawl
Harvest and Other Technologies
• Nets, floats
• Boats, engines
• Radios, navigational equipment
• Fish finders
• Transport and refrigeration
Modification of Drainage Basins
• Landscape, physical, chemical and biological changes
Exotics and Invasive Species
• Varied sources of introduction
• Prevention and management strategies
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Factors Influencing Today’s Great Lakes
Sociopolitical Changes
• Treaties (between native peoples and immigrants
• Policy changes: state, federal, tribal
• Cross-jurisdictional (interstate) and international cooperation
Fisheries – continued
Management Science Technologies
• Hatcheries
• Genetics
• Population and ecosystem modeling
• Computers
• Restrictions
• Disease detection, monitoring and management
Physical and Chemical Modifications
• Cultural impacts causing soil erosion, warming of the water, and run-off of nutrients
• Contaminants
Atmospheric and Global Changes
• Contaminants in the atmosphere
• Movement of contaminants in ecosystems
• Global warming
Future of the Great Lakes Fisheries
Understanding Great Lakes fisheries helps us to better understand what constitutes quality of life in and around the lakes. In the coming years, Great Lakes fisheries will continue to experience the implications of many challenges from the past – notably contaminants, exotics, changes in the status of certain fisheries and management of a vast international resource. Future Great Lakes fisheries will face challenges in three main areas:
• Ecosystem management
• Research, fisheries management, and involvement of decision makers
• Involvement of user groups in fisheries management
How You Can Help Great Lakes Fisheries in the Future?
• Become informed! Read fisheries related information or visit science-based organizations such as the Michigan Sea Grant program at http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/
• Contact your legislators or an agency responsible for managing and regulating the fishery, such as the U.S. Fisheries and Wildlife Service
• Attend Great Lakes events that celebrate and support Great Lakes fisheries and water quality
• Participate in water clean-up projects
• Take everyday actions to protect water quality and healthy fisheries – choose, use and dispose of home and garden chemicals wisely
Source: Michigan Sea Grant Program
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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PART III: LESSON PLANS FOR THE CLASSROOM
The lesson plans for Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage correlate to the exhibit themes:
Geology/The Third Coast
1. “Michigan History”
Students use Social Studies skills to make a time line marked along a string in 500-year intervals, thus becoming aware of the eons about which we have only limited information, derived from archaeological investigation and oral tradition.
2. “When Glaciers Covered Michigan”
Students use Social Studies, Vocabulary and Science skills to understand the effects of glaciation on Michigan’s surface and describe how Michigan vegetation changed after the glaciers melted.
Great Lakes Superhighway
3. “Where did Michigan’s First People Live?”
Students use Social Studies skills to learn about the major Native American tribes and their locations in Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas upon the arrival of Europeans.
4. “Canoe Routes of Native Americans in Michigan”
Students use Social Studies and Map skills to understand Michigan’s waterways and how Native Americans and early fur trader used them for navigation.
Lighthouses: Caution Lights for the Superhighway
5. “Make a Lighthouse”
Students use art and history skills to make a model lighthouse using patterns of lighthouses on the Great Lakes and a flashlight.
Shipwrecks and Lifesaving
6. “Great Lakes Shipping: The Story of the Edmund Fitzgerald” for Grade 6
Students use History, Social Studies, and Reading to define new terms related to shipping, learn about different theories that explain the sinking of the Edmund Fitzgerald. They then will create a detailed map of the route taken by the Edmund Fitzgerald and explain one theory of the sinking.
Great Lakes Ecology and Preservation
7. “Water Quantity” for Grades 4 – 8
Students use Science and Critical Thinking skills to understand the relative scarcity of freshwater on earth and the importance of conserving water usable by humans and animals.
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Geology/The Third Coast
Lesson Plan 1
Michigan History on a String -

http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17451_18670_18793-94550–,00.html

(Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries)
Primary Subject: Social Studies
Secondary Subject: Math
Objectives: Students will compare Michigan’s long existence with its short written history and identify key dates in Michigan’s existence.
Materials:
• String, yarn or twine: one 12-foot-long piece for each student
• Ruler
• Colored markers
• Teacher’s reference page: “A String Time Line of Michigan History” (Click link below for PDF page.) http://www.michigan.gov/documents/hal_mhc_mhm_string-timeline_93325_7.pdf
Directions: Have students each make a string time line of Michigan history, then visit other grades to show younger students how much history Michigan has. The photo on the teacher’s reference page illustrates the string time line. Give each student a piece of string. Then have students do the following (see reference page):
1. Indicate today’s era: Knot one end of the string. This will symbolize this year.
2. Show time in 500-year intervals: Measure back from the knot 5 inches and knot the string again. Keep tying knots in the string every five inches until you have 20 more knots (21 with the first knot at the end). Color the knot at 1500 years with a red marker.
3. Indicate the amount of time since the Europeans arrived (around 1620). Color the year 2000 knot and color the length of string for about 4 inches back from the knot (to indicate 400 years) with a black marker.
4. Color the last knot with a blue marker to represent 8000 B.C. (approximate arrival of the ancient Paleo people).
5. Partially show (and imagine) the time it took for this land we call Michigan to form by leaving the end of the string before the blue knot as long as you can. (The teacher’s version of the time line might have the wound ball of string still connected at that end.)
6. Conduct a discussion about the meaning of the knots and colors. Ask:
7. Which part of the string shows how long people lived in Michigan? (all from the 8000 B.C. [blue] knot)
8. When did Columbus arrive in the Western Hemisphere? Where would that date fall on the string time line? (1492, next to the 1500 [red] knot)
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9. Which part shows the time for which we have Michigan history that people wrote down? (the black colored section after the Europeans arrived c 1620)
10. Which part of the string shows the amount of time for which we have history of peoples that is not written down? We call this time “precontact” and depend upon archaeologists to help us learn how people lived then. (the uncolored portion of the string from 1620 to the blue knot)
11. Optional: Have students make a tag for their own birth date (or an event they’ve studied). Tie it onto the string at the appropriate place. Add tags for the archaeological periods illustrated in the Michigan Historical Museum’s First People exhibits.
Ask students to each give a brief talk using the string time line to explain what they now know about time and history in Michigan. After they have practiced their presentation, visit other classrooms so they can share what they learned.
Questions for Discussion or Research:
1. What would you like to know about Michigan history that you could only learn from an archaeologist or the oral tradition of Michigan’s Indians?
2. How does Michigan’s climate make it difficult for archaeologists to find intact artifacts left behind by Michigan’s first people?
Vocabulary
• Anthropology: the study of people, their relationships, culture and history
• Archaeology: the scientific study of the culture of a people through things they left behind (e.g., implements, artifacts, monuments, inscriptions) found in the earth
• Artifact: an object made or modified by people
• Oral tradition: information, opinions, beliefs, and customs handed down from one generation to the next by word of mouth
• Time line: a visual representation of important events or years in chronological order
References
• Fitting, James E. The Archaeology of Michigan: A Guide to the Prehistory of the Great Lakes Region (2nd, rev. ed.). Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1975.
• Lewis, Ferris Everett. Michigan, Yesterday and Today (ninth ed.). Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1980.
• Tanner, Helen Hornbeck (Editor). Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Lesson Plan 2
When Glaciers Covered Michigan –

http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17451_18670_18793-94369–,00.html

(Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries)
Primary Subject: Social Studies
Secondary Subjects: Geography, History, Vocabulary
Background Notes: Several advances and retreats of continental glaciers covered Michigan over many thousands of years. The most recent glacier retreated (melted) about 14,000 years ago, leaving the land formation much as it is today. Vegetation was different from today: first tundra-like, then later covered with spruce forests and bogs. Ice Age mammals inhabited Michigan then: mammoth, mastodon, caribou and giant beaver. Human hunters of the caribou came into Michigan to stalk and kill the big game animals for food, fur and other necessities. The Paleo (ancient) Indians were believed to be the first humans to visit what is now Michigan.
Objectives: Students will draw (show) the effects of glaciation on Michigan’s surface and describe how Michigan vegetation changed after the glaciers melted.
Materials Needed
• Plastic milk jug with the top cut off
• Water; sand and gravel
• Refrigerator/freezer
Directions: Freeze a mixture of sand, gravel, and water in the milk jug. Allow the frozen mixture to thaw sufficiently on the edges to allow removal from the jug (or cut away the jug). Examine the ice block and discuss how the real glacier would have accumulated the sand and gravel. Allow the ice block to melt in an undisturbed location (on a sidewalk or playground surface or in a large pan in the classroom). Discuss what happened to the “glacial runoff” (water) and what happened to the sand and gravel (formation of hills, i.e., glacial moraines).
Questions for Discussion or Research
• What would it have been like to have lived in Michigan at the end of the Ice Age?
• If the ice sheets that once covered our state were a mile thick, how deep would that be? How many times would you have to stack your school building on top of itself to make a mile high stack?
Vocabulary
• Bog: wet spongy ground; marsh or swamp
• Canadian Shield: an area of almost 2,000,000 square miles of Precambrian strata that occupies most of eastern and central Canada and extends into the states of New York, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. It contains large deposits of copper, gold, and iron ore. The glaciers pushed many of its rocks into Michigan, forming moraines.
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• Coal: black, combustible mineral formed from deteriorating vegetable matter away from air, under different temperatures and pressure for over a million years
• Copper: reddish-brown, metallic element; excellent conductor of electricity and heat
• Delta: a deposit of sand and soil, usually triangular, formed at the mouth of rivers
• Dolomite: common rock-forming mineral often occurring in extensive beds
• Drainage basin: land drained by a river system
• Esker: a winding, narrow ridge of sand or gravel, usually by a stream flowing in or under glacial ice
• Glacial striations: parallel lines on rock surfaces or crystal faces
• Glacier: compacted snow frozen into a huge mass of moving ice
• Gypsum: a mineral that occurs in sedimentary rock; used for making plaster of Paris and in treating soil
• Halite: rock salt; native sodium chloride
• Iron ore: unwrought natural material from which iron can be extracted
• Limestone: rock composed of organic remains of sea animals use in building; when crystallized by heat and pressure becomes marble. Limestone is used for smelting iron ore to make steel
• Loam: rich soil composed of clay, sand, and some organic matter
• Moraine: an accumulation of earth and stones carried and deposited by a glacier
• Oil: greasy, combustible substance obtained from animal, vegetable, or mineral sources, not soluble in water
• Outwash plain: sand and gravel deposited by meltwater streams in front of glacial ice
• Sandstone: common bedded sedimentary rock used for building; composed largely of sand grains to form coherent mass
• Shale: fine-grained, thinly bedded rock formed by hardening of clay; splits easily into thin layers
• Watershed: a ridge or stretch of high land dividing area drained by different rivers or river systems
References
• Doff, John, Jr., and Eschman, Donald F. (1970). Geology of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
• Fitting, James E. (1970). The Archaeology of Michigan. Garden City, NY: The Natural History Press.
• Heinrich, E. Wm. (1976). The Mineralogy of Michigan, Bulletin 6. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division.
• Kelley, R. W. (1967). The Glacial Lakes Around Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division.
• Larsen, Curtis E. (1987). Geological History of Glacial Lake Algonquin and the Upper Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1801. Books and Open File Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225.
• Pielou. E. C. (1991). After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
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The Great Lakes Superhighway
Lesson Plan 3
Where did Michigan’s First People Live? -

http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17451_18670_18793-94373–,00.html

(Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries)
Primary Subject: Social Studies
Secondary Subjects: History, Vocabulary, Geography
Background Notes: The First People entered the area we call Michigan over 10,000 years ago. They hunted and fished for thousands of years. Yet the environment showed little impact from their lives here. When the Europeans arrived around 1620, Woodland peoples of the Algonquian language groups lived on this land that would become Michigan. This chart lists the tribes and their approximate Michigan locations.
Menominee
South central Upper Peninsula (near present Menominee River and Green Bay)
Chippewa (Ojibwa)
Eastern Upper Peninsula
Ottawa
Eastern Upper Peninsula, Canada
Potawatomi
Western lower Michigan
Mascowten
Western and central southern lower Michigan
Sauk
Eastern central lower Michigan, near Saginaw Bay
Fox
Eastern lower Michigan, near Lake Huron
Kickapoo
Southeastern corner of lower Michigan
Miami
Southwestern corner of lower Michigan
Learning Objectives: Students will identify Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas and the directions—north, south, east, and west—on an outline map of Michigan. Students will be able to correctly identify the major Native American tribes and their locations upon the arrival of Europeans in the area that is now the state of Michigan.
Materials Needed
• Pencils, pens or markers
• Blank outline map of Michigan (Click below for PDF map.) http://www.michigan.gov/documents/hal_mhc_mhm_outlinemap_74426_7.pdf
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• Teacher: completed map for reference (Click below for completed PDF map.) http://www.michigan.gov/documents/hal_mhc_mhm_tribal-locationsp65_93237_7.pdf
Directions: This activity assumes knowledge of directional concepts (north, south, east, west) and the concepts of upper and lower (peninsula). Review these using a Michigan map before beginning the activity. (Note that there are no definite areas marked with lines. Tribes moved seasonally and—due to conflicts and interactions with the French, British and Americans—changed locations into the 19th century.) Provide each student with an outline map of Michigan. Write the names of the major Indian tribes on the board. Using a Michigan wall map discuss the tribes and point out the areas in which they lived. Have students write the names of the tribes on their own maps during the discussion. (For greater challenge, distribute the blank maps and assign the activity to be completed from memory after the class discussion.)
Questions for Further Research
1. Why did some Indian tribes move from one section of Michigan to another?
2. Was each tribe aware of neighboring tribes? How did they get to know each other?
Vocabulary
• Peninsula: A section of land surrounded by water on all sides but one.
• Tribe: A group of people made up of many families.
References
• Cleland, Charles E. Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan’s Native Americans. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1992.
• Clifton, James A., George L. Cornell, and James M. McClurken. People of the Three Fires. Grand Rapids, MI: Grand Rapids Inter-Tribal Council, 1968.
• Farm Bureau Insurance Group. Early Indians of Michigan. Lansing, MI: Farm Bureau Insurance Group, n.d.
• Halsey, John R. (Editor). Indians in Michigan. Great Lakes Informant, Series 2, Number 10. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of State, History Division, 1984.
• Sturtevant, William C. (Editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978.
• Tanner, Helen Hornbeck (Editor). Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
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Lesson Plan 4
Canoe Routes of Native Americans in Michigan

http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17451_18670_18793-94377–,00.html

(Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries)
Primary Subject: Social Studies, Art History
Secondary Subjects: Sociology, History, Language Arts
Background Notes: Michigan is surrounded by the Great Lakes and has many rivers and smaller lakes within its borders. The First People of Michigan found canoe travel an efficient way to get from one place to another. When the French and English came seeking furs, they recognized it as a good way to travel and adopted the canoe for their own use. Native Americans and fur traders frequently had to “portage” to get from one river to another. To portage they carried their canoes and fur bundles from one river or body of water to another. In later years some rivers were rerouted or canals dug to eliminate the need to portage. For example, a canal was dug to make it possible to cross the Keweenaw Peninsula in Houghton County without portaging.
Learning Objectives: Given a highway map of Michigan and a projected overhead transparency of the included map of Michigan rivers, the student will highlight the rivers used by Native Americans on the highway map. Students will be able to explain the extent of Michigan’s waterways.
Materials Needed:
• Michigan Department of Transportation highway map (Click below to order for free)
http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9622_11033_11151—,00.html
• Overhead transparency of map of Michigan with rivers (Click below for PDF map) http://www.michigan.gov/documents/hal_mhc_mhm_mi-rivers-map_93199_7.pdf
• Highlighter pens
Directions: Make an overhead transparency from the map of Michigan rivers (see above for pdf). Project the overhead transparency so that it can be viewed by the entire class. Ask students to open their highway maps. Locate, identify by name and discuss (location, source, outlet) Michigan’s major rivers. Direct students to highlight the rivers discussed on their maps of Michigan. Write the name of each river on the transparency as students identify it. Ask students to suggest places where the early travelers would have needed to portage to get from one river to another. Mark them on the transparency map. Are there other rivers—especially near your town—that would have served as canoe routes? Highlight them on the highway maps and add them to the overhead transparency. Optional: a county map is useful for locating nearby rivers.
Questions for Discussion or Research
1. Why did Native Americans choose rivers as a major means of travel in Michigan?
2. Why did the early French and British adventurers also travel mostly by lake and river?
3. What major Michigan cities are near rivers?
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Vocabulary
• Canoe: A light narrow boat with both ends sharp, usually moved by paddling.
• Portage: (n.) The route followed to carry boats or goods overland from one body of water to another. (v.) to carry the canoe, back, etc., over land to the next available waterway.
References
• Sommers, Lawrence M. (Editor). Atlas of Michigan. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press (Distributed by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI), 1977.
• Tanner, Helen Hornbeck (Editor). Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
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Lighthouses
Lesson Plan 5
Make a Lighthouse

http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-15481_19268_20778-95614–,00.html

(Michigan Department of History, Arts, and Libraries)
Primary Subjects: Art, History
Secondary Subjects: Geology
You are a Great Lakes sailor 100 years ago. Lighthouses warn you away from rocks and reefs and shallow waters. But they do more than that. They let you know where you are. You follow the coastline as you travel from port to port. And you follow the lighthouses.
Blink, blink! How do you find your position during at night? You look for the flashes of light. Each light has its own pattern, called its characteristic. One light may flash slowly, another quickly, another in groups of two or three flashes with a pause in between, another with a red or green light flashing after the white light. In a flashing pattern the dark pause between the flashes lasts longer than the flash of light. Some lights have an occulting pattern. In an occulting pattern the flash of light lasts longer than the dark pause between the flashes. You know the pattern of the different lights, so you always know where you are along the coast at night.
How do you find your position during the day? You look for the lighthouse. Lighthouses have different shapes. Some are free-standing towers. Others are attached to a keeper’s house. They are painted in different colors or patterns. White paint helps them stand out against the trees and sky. Some towers are all white. Some have alternating stripes of white and black or of white and red. On some, the stripe has a spiral pattern like a barber pole. The pattern or color of a lighthouse is called its day mark. You know the day mark of each tower, so you always know where you are during the day.
You can make paper models of four Michigan lighthouses that each have a different day mark. This activity has patterns for these lights:
• Detroit River, Lake Erie
• Fort Gratiot, Lake Huron
• Stannard Rock, Lake Superior
• White Shoal, Lake Michigan
Materials Needed:
• The paper lighthouse patterns [PDF, 4 pages] Click the link below for patterns. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/hal_mhc_mhm_lighthouse-patterns_94526_7.pdf
• A piece of tabloid-size (11″ x 17″) plain white paper for each tower you want to make
• A way to enlarge each pattern 2x. (Use a copy machine or redraw the pattern.)
• Crayons, water-based markers or water paint
• A 10 oz. clear plastic drinking cup for each tower
• Tape
• A flashlight 6-8″ long that can stand upright on the end opposite its light
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Directions:
• Copy or trace each pattern onto a sheet of the large paper. Make the new pattern about two times bigger than the original.
• Color the lighthouse walls according to the directions on the pattern page.
• Cut out the pattern.
• Tape or glue the side edges together so that the plain strip is underneath the opposite
• edge. You now have a cone-shaped tower with a wide base and a narrow top.
• Insert the plastic cup—bottom first—into the base of the tower as far as it will go. Use a few pieces of tape on the inside of the tower to keep it there.
• Place the flashlight on a tabletop and turn on the light. Put your lighthouse over the flashlight.
• Turn off the lights in the room to see your lighthouse shine! (Important: do not use a candle or any type of flammable light near your paper lighthouse!)
(NOTE: If you cannot enlarge the pattern, you can make a mini-lighthouse using a clear 3-5 oz. bathroom-size plastic cup and a pen-size flashlight.)
Reprinted with permission. Great Lakes, Great Stories: Michigan’s Maritime Heritage
Macomb Cultural Center – October-December 2007
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Shipwrecks and Lifesaving
Lesson Plan 6
Great Lakes Shipping: The Story of the Edmund Fitzgerald
By Judi Vittio and Dan Kust

http://wupcenter.mtu.edu/education/great_lakes_maritime/teaching_units/Vittito_Kust_Ed_Fitz_Lesson.pdf

Grade Level: Grade 6
Primary Subjects: Reading and Social Studies
Secondary Subjects: Mapping, Vocabulary
Learning Objectives: Students will be able to define new terms related to shipping (examples: taconite/iron ore, aft, stern, ballast, listing, broach). They will also recognize the different between the two major theories (open Hatch and Shoaling) that support the sinking of the Edmund Fitzgerald. They will create a map of the Great Lakes shipping route used by the Edmund Fitzgerald and construct a brief presentation to the class that demonstrates this event.
Materials Needed:
• Map of the Great Lakes (One for each student)
• Video: Shipwreck: The Mystery of the Edmund Fitzgerald
• The Edmund Fitzgerald Lost with All Hands by Capt. Robert Hertel
• The Edmund Fitzgerald Song of the Bell by Kathy-Jo Wargin
• Gordon Lightfoot – Gord’s Gold Volume II (The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald) with lyrics
• LCD projector/lap top/internet access
• Colored Pencils
• Ruler
Vocabulary Words
1. Aft – back or behind
2. Ballast – weight added to lower a ship in the water making it less top heavy
3. Broach – when a vessel rolls onto its side
4. Listing – tipping to the side
5. Stern – back of the ship
6. Taconite – iron ore found in the Lake Superior region, refined, and formed into pellets
7. Shipping Route – the route in which a freighter travels from port to port
Background Information:On November 9, 1975, the Edmund Fitzgerald left the port of Superior Wisconsin bound for Detroit, Michigan. Carrying 26 thousand tons of taconite to be used to build cars, the crew anticipated a routine trip across Lake Superior. The Arthur M Anderson, another Great Lakes freighter was 10 miles behind the Ed Fitz. When a gale warning was issued by the weather service, the two ships decided to travel together. Several significant communication failures occurred – long range radar was not operative, then short range was lost, then the Whitefish Point Lighthouse lost power due to the storm. Essentially, the Ed Fitz was without navigational aids.
Two theories surround the tragic disappearance of the Edmund Fitzgerald. Shoaling, or running aground, is one popular theory. It is believed that the great ship struck bottom on the Six Fathom Shoal
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off the shores of Caribou Island. Another theory is referred to as the Open Hatch Theory. Some believe that the hatches were not sealed properly, causing the freighter to take on excessive amounts of water that resulted in the ultimate sinking of the Edmund Fitzgerald.
Pre-Assessment/Focus Questions
1. What is the significance of the name, Edmund Fitzgerald?
2. What cargo is transported across the Great Lakes?
Attention-Getter or Hook
Listen to the song “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot. Have lyrics available to students so that they can follow along.
Procedure
Day One
1. Write pre-assessment questions on the board. Discuss student responses and give correct information.
2. Distribute lyrics.
3. Play the song “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald”.
4. Listen to the song and discuss.
5. Write the 6 vocabulary terms on the board for students to listen to during the reading of the book, The Edmund Fitzgerald Song of the Bell by Kathy-Jo Wargin.
6. Record and discuss vocabulary and events in the book.
Day Two
1. Distribute book The Edmund Fitzgerald Lost With All Hands by Capt. Robert Hertel.
2. In small groups partner read pages 38-43.
3. Record notes on the shoaling and open hatch theories.
4. Whole class discussion about theories that support the sinking of the Edmund Fitzgerald.
5. Closure: Read epilogue
Day Three
1. Distribute blank maps of the Great Lakes & Lake Carriers’ Association (LCA) packet of shipping routes on the Great Lakes (for teacher and student reference).
2. Teacher display map of shipping routes from LCA and LCD projector for classroom discussion on shipping. Address the following topics:
a. Minnesota exports (taconite etc.)
b. Shipping routes/stops/locks
3. Students label the following locations:
a. Superior, Wisconsin
b. Duluth, Minnesota
c. Port Huron, Michigan
d. Detroit, Michigan
e. Marquette, Michigan
f. Michipicoten Island
g. Six Fathom Shoals
h. Caribou Island
i. Whitefish Point
j. Sault Sainte Marie
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k. Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake St. Lawrence
l. Toronto, Canada
m. Atlantic Ocean
4. Trace a shipping route starting in Duluth, Minnesota to Detroit, Michigan.
5. Trace a shipping route starting in Marquette, Michigan to Toronto, Canada and out to the Atlantic Ocean
Day Four
1. View Video: Shipwreck: The Mystery of the Edmund Fitzgerald
2. Discuss significant points and review KWL chart from Day One
3. In small groups students web significant events of the Ed Fitz
4. Students choose one of these events and create a brief performance modeling the event.
5. Share with class on the following day.
References
-Holling Clancy Holling. Paddle to the Sea
- http://www.great-lakes.net/econ/busenvt/maritime.html
- http://www.shipwreckmuseum.com/
- http://greatlakeshistory.homestead.com.home.html
- http://www.nmc.edu/maritime/
- http://www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/seawaymap/index/html
- Hertel, Robert. (1999). The Edmund Fitzgerald Lost With All Hands (p. 29, pp38-45. Spring Lake, Michigan: River Road Publications, Inc.
- Shipwreck: The Mystery of the Edmund Fitzgerald (video). (1995) Great lakes Shipwreck Historical Society.
- Wargin, Kathy-Jo. (2003). The Edmund Fitzgerald Song of the Bell. Chelsea, Michigan: Sleeping Bear Press.
- Boswell, Mark (November 10, 2005) “When the Gales of November Came Slashing – The Edmund Fitzgerald” Minneapolis Star Tribune
- Lake Carriers Association http://www.lcaships.com
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Great Lakes Preservation
Lesson Plan 7
Water Quantity

http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/flow/U2/U2-L3.html

Grade Level: Grades 4-8
Primary Subject: Science
Secondary Subject: Social Studies
Learning Objectives: After participating in this activity, students will experience the relative scarcity of freshwater on the planet and explain why some of the earth’s water is not easily accessible
Summary Even though the earth contains an abundance of water, only a small percentage is fresh water. An even smaller amount of this freshwater is accessible and usable by the people and animals that need it. As the human population grows, the amount of freshwater available per person shrinks. The relatively small amount of available freshwater demonstrates how critical it is for everyone to help maintain clean, healthy lakes and streams.
Background Information: Oceans and seas contain more than 97 percent of the water on the planet. Because it is salt water, it is not healthy for humans and animals to drink. The remaining supply of water on Earth is fresh water. The amount of freshwater available for use by living beings is very small (See chart). The Great Lakes contain 20 percent of the world’s supply of surface freshwater. Other reservoirs of freshwater are not available for use by humans. For instance, more than 2 percent of the Earth’s freshwater is “locked” in ice caps and glaciers. The Earth’s supply of water remains the same: the planet has as much water as it will ever have. Yet world population continues to grow. The relatively small amount of available freshwater supports more than 6 billion people. As this number increases, the amount of fresh water available per person decreases. Thus maintaining the quality of the Earth’s available fresh water is vitally important.
Amount of water in each major reservoir on earth:
Saltwater in oceans:
97.2%
Ice caps and glaciers:
2.14%
Groundwater:
0.61%
Surface water:
0.009%
Soil moisture:
0.005%
Total:
100%
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Materials and Preparation
• 5-gallon bucket
• 2-cup transparent measuring cup
• 1-cup transparent measuring cup
• 1 eye-dropper
• Water Body Worksheet
Advance Preparation Before class starts, fill the 5-gallon bucket with water. Have the other materials nearby in a place where the whole class can observe.
Note: Be sure to wipe water off the floor if spills occur during this activity.
Procedure
1. Explain to students that the water in the 5-gallon bucket represents all the water on Earth. Ask them to name the kinds of water that exist in, on or around Earth. They should be able to name rivers, lakes, oceans, clouds or water vapor, ice caps, groundwater, water held in soil, and water held in plants and animals. Provide hints so that all types of water are mentioned.
2. Ask two students to come up and help with the demonstration. Ask one of them to remove two cups of water from the bucket, using a measuring cup. Have the student hold that amount so everyone in the class can see it. Ask: What does the water in the cup represent? (Freshwater.) Ask: What does the water remaining in the bucket represent? (Saltwater.) Explain that the saltwater is not usable by humans because drinking it would make us very sick.
3. Move the bucket aside. Ask the first student to pour 1/2 cup of water into the one-cup measurer held by the other student. Ask: What does the 1-1/2 cups still left in the two-cup measurer represent? (Polar ice caps.) Explain that this water is unavailable for our use because it is frozen. Set this cup aside. The first student can return to his or her seat.
4. Ask the class what the 1/2 cup of water represents. (Groundwater, surface water (e.g. lakes, rivers, wetlands), and water vapor in the atmosphere.) Have the class guess how much water should be removed from the cup to represent only the surface water on Earth. After a few guesses, pull out the eye dropper from your pocket and draw some water into it. Place one drop of water into the hand of a few students. Explain that one drop of water out of a whole 5-gallon bucket represents the water that is available to us and other animals for drinking.
5. Allow the class to think about this for a minute. Then explain to them that the total amount of water on the planet is not going to change. Even though water moves around on the planet and changes from one kind to another, we will never have any more than we have right now.
Discuss the Results Spend some time discussing the activity with the class. The following questions are a good place to start:
• Were you surprised at how little water is available for human use?
• Would you call water a scarce or an abundant resource? Why?
• What do we need/use water for?
• Why can’t we drink saltwater?
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• The number of people who need to use Earth’s freshwater keeps increasing. If the amount of freshwater cannot change, but there are more people who need it, what does that mean? What might happen?
• Can people and animals live without clean freshwater?
• What is the main cause of the increased demand for freshwater?
Ask students to think about the term “water quality.” Find out from them what they think it means. If they get stuck, have them think about it in terms of low water quality or high water quality: would they want to drink, wash, swim, or cook with low quality water or high quality water? Have them come up with as many descriptions as they can for what might be “low quality” and “high quality” water.
Source North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences – Adapted with permission from the Girls in Science Program. Original source content: Hands On Save Our Streams – The Save Our Streams Teacher’s Manual, Chapter One, Watersheds, Water Water Everywhere and Not A Drop to Spare, Water Supply Activity, The Izaak Walton League of America.
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COPY MASTER
Water Body Worksheet
In class today, you have seen how much water is on the planet and how it is distributed. One thing people don’t think a lot about is that we depend on water every day. If you don’t get enough (clean) water, you can get very sick. In this exercise, you will calculate how much water is in your body right now, as well as how much water you are likely to utilize in your body over your whole lifetime.
1. Figure out how many pounds of water are in your body. Approximately five sixths of your body weight is water.
Use this equation: 5/6 X ___________________ lbs. = ____________________lbs.
(your weight)
2. Now use this answer to find out how many gallons of water are in your body. (Note: 1gallon of water weighs 8.1 lbs.)
__________________ lbs. / 8.1 = ___________________ gallons
(answer from part 1)
3. Now find out how much water your body needs during your life span. Each person’s body needs to replace 1.5 million gallons of water throughout their life. To get a feel for this, a back-yard
swimming pool holds about 20,000 gallons of water. How many swimming pools of water will you need in your life?
Use this equation: 1,500,000 gallons / 20,000 gallons = _________________________
(swimming pools of water used in a lifetime)
4. Was there anything here that was surprising to you? Explain.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
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PART IV: WEBSITES FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum

http://www.aahom.org/

Army Corps of Engineers

http://www.lrd.usace.army.mil/

Great Lakes and Ohio River District home page

http://www.lre.usace.army.mil/

Detroit District home page
Bell Museum of Natural History

http://www.bellmuseum.org/

BoatNerd.com

http://www.boatnerd.com/

Clarke Historical Library at Central Michigan University

http://clarke.cmich.edu/

Colonial Michilimackinac State Park

http://www.mackinacparks.com/parks/colonial-michilimackinac_7/

Cranbrook Institute of Science

http://science.cranbrook.edu/

Detroit Historical Museum

http://www.detroithistorical.org/

Dossin Great Lakes Museum

http://www.detroithistorical.org/aboutus/dossin.asp

Great Lakes Commission

http://www.glc.org/

Great Lakes Information Network

http://www.great-lakes.net/

Great Lakes Lighthouse Keepers Association

http://www.gllka.com/

Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society

http://www.shipwreckmuseum.com/

The Historical Society of Michigan

http://www.hsmichigan.org/

Jesse Besser Museum

http://www.bessermuseum.org/

LakeFury.com

http://www.lakefury.com/

Mackinac Island State Park

http://www.mackinacparks.com/

Macomb County Historical Commission

http://www.hsmichigan.org/mountclemens/

Macomb County Library

http://www.macomb.lib.mi.us/mcl/

Michigan Historical Museum

http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17447_18595_18596—,00.html

Michigan Maritime Museum

http://www.michiganmaritimemuseum.org/

Michigan Office of the Great Lakes

http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3677-80115–,00.html

Michigan Oral History Association

http://www.h-net.org/~oralhist/moha/

Michigan Sea Grant Commission

http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/index.html

Michigan Women’s Historical Center and Hall of Fame

http://www.michiganwomenshalloffame.org/pages/timeline.htm

Mariner’s Church of Detroit

http://marinerschurchofdetroit.org/

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Mount Clemens Library

http://www.libcoop.net/mountclemens/

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration

http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/

Ninth Coast Guard District

http://www.uscg.mil/d9/

Noble Odyssey Foundation

http://www.nobleodyssey.org/

Port Huron Museum Fort Gratiot Lighthouse Museum

http://www.phmuseum.org/

Save Our South Channel Lights

http://www.soschannellights.org/

St. Clair Shores Public Library

http://www.libcoop.net/stclairshores/

Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

http://thunderbay.noaa.gov/

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PART V: MORE GREAT LAKES RESOURCES
1. Lighthouses
Forty Mile Point
Forty Mile Point Lighthouse Society
PO Box 205
Rogers City, MI 49779
PH: (800) 622-4148
Hours: weekends noon-4:00
June 1-mid October
Sturgeon Point
Alcona Historical Society
PO Box 174
Harrisville, MI 48740
PH: (989) 724-6297
Pointe Aux Barques
8114 Rubicon Road
Port Hope, MI 48468
PH: (989) 428-4749
Daily 8-8 Memorial weekend to Sept. 30
2. Maritime Museums
Dossin Great Lakes Museum
100 Strand Drive
Belle Isle, Detroit, MI 48207
313-852-4051
Mackinac State Historic Parks
207 West Sinclair St.
P. O. Box 873
Mackinaw City, MI 48701
231-436-4100
Michigan Maritime Museum
260 Dyckman Avenue
South Haven, MI 49090
800-747-3810
Great Lakes Lore Maritime Museum
367 N. 3rd Street
Rogers City, MI 49779
989-734-0706
Dr. John Hartig
US Coast Guard Marine Safety Office
100 Mt. Elliott Ave.
Detroit, MI 48207
313-568-9594
jhartig@msodetroit.uscg.mil
3. Historic ships and replicas
SS Keewatin Douglas
Huron Lightship Port Huron
SS Badger Ludington
Highlander Sea Port Huron
4. Underwater preserves
- Sanilac Shores Underwater Preserve
- Lake Huron Shipwreck and Maritime Center
- Southwest Michigan Underwater Preserve
- Straits of Mackinac Underwater Preserve
- Thumb Area Underwater Preserve
- Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve
5. Performing artists
Michael P. Deren – will travel
*At the Cultural Center 11/4 at 2pm.*
The Past in Person and Dodworth Saxhorn Band
2640 Powell Avenue
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
PH: (734) 663-9634
jmtderen@prodigy.net
Kitty Donohoe – will travel
*At the Cultural Center 10/28 at 2pm*
“Lighthouses & Legends”
3462 Richard St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
PH: (734) 973-2998
kitdonohoe@aol.com
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Larry B. Massie – will travel
*At the Cultural Center 10/13 at 2pm.*
Michigan History Storytelling
Contact: Priscilla D. Massie
2109 41st Street
Allegan, MI 49010
PH: (616) 673-3633
Lee Murdock – will travel
*At the Cultural Center 10/19 at 10:00 am & 1:00 pm 10/21 at 2pm.*
Music and stories of the Great Lakes
Contact: Joann Murdock
Artists of Note, Inc.
PO Box 11
Kaneville, IL 60144-0011
(630) 577-2742
jmurdock@mcs.com
http://www.leemurdock.com
Genot Picor: French Voyageur and Storyteller
*At the Cultural Center 10/14 at 2pm.*
15904 Haverhill Drive
Macomb, MI 48044
PH: (586) 566-0952
Project Lakewell: Voices of Our Past – will travel
Costumed presenters bring to life historically significant individuals who lived during the fur trade period of Great Lakes history.
Contact: James M. Meyerle
9140 Grove Road
DeWitt, MI 48820
PH: (517) 669-3710
FX: (517) 669-7873
lakewell@voyager.net
Song of the Lakes – will travel
Ambassadors of the Great Lakes
*At the Cultural Center 10/6 at 2pm.*
Contact: Mike Sullivan
PO Box 1544
Traverse City, MI 49685-1544
PH: (231) 947-0398
FX: (231) 947-4311
makenwavez@aol.com
http://www.songofthelakes.com
Donn P. Werling, Ph.D., Director,
Sweetwater Journey– will travel
*At the Cultural Center 11/11 at 2pm*
Ballads that tell the story of our Great Lakes heritage of lighthouses and Allen County – Fort Wayne Historical Society (collaborates with wife Diane and Eric Shaver and Richard Harris of Michigan).
PH: (260) 426-2882 x 22
History Center
302 E. Berry
Fort Wayne, IN 46806
PH: (260) 748-7854
Email: dpwerling@comcast.net
6. Ferry, Charter Boat and Cruise Companies
Great Lakes Cruise Company 3270 Washtenaw Avenue Ann Arbor, MI 48104 Great Lakes Cruise Company Toll Free: (888) 891-0203 Voice: (734) 477-6032 Email: info@greatlakescruising.com
As the only Travel Company in the world to specialize in the Great Lakes cruises, we offer unforgettable adventures on these legendary waters. We invite you to join us as we discover the Great Lakes.
Lake Huron – Huron Lady II Cruises 3560 Pine Grove Ave. #379 Port Huron, MI 48060 http://www.huronlady.com Toll Free: (888) 873-6726 Voice: (810) 984-1500 Email: Captrigney@hotmail.com Cruise from beautiful downtown Port Huron on an informative narrated tour of the beautiful Blue Water Area. View Great Lake freighters, the two Blue Water Bridges, Fort Gratiot Lighthouse, Lake Huron and more.
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Soo Locks Boat Tours & Dinner Cruises P.O. Box 739 Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783 Sault Ste Marie Locks PH: (906) 632-6301 PH: (906) 632-2512 Toll Free: (800)432-6301 Email: sales@soolocks.com Take a trip through the famous Soo Locks. The whole family will enjoy a fully narrated, memorable, and relaxing tour. Learn about the lake freighters, ocean vessels, and the historic Sault Ste. Marie. For a different cruise, try one of our Dinner or Lighthouse Cruises.
7. Museums with significant maritime exhibits
Bay County Historical Society
Gay McInerney, Executive Director
Bay County Historical Society
321 Washington Avenue
Bay City, MI 48708
PH: (989) 893-5733
FX: (989) 893-5741

http://www.bchsmuseum.org

Detroit Historical Museum
Dr. Dennis Zembala, PhD, Director
5401 Woodward
Detroit, MI 48202
PH: (313) 833-1801
FX: (313) 833-5342
Zembalad@hist.ci.detroit.mi.us
Port Huron Museum
Steve Williams, Director
1115 Sixth Street
Port Huron, MI 48060-5346
PH: (810) 982-0891
FX: (810) 982-0053
http://www.phmuseum.org
St. Clair Historical Museum
Ronald Brenner
308 South Fourth
St. Clair, MI 48079
PH: (810) 329-6888
8. Festivals
Boat Town Festival of Lights
Dave Klicki
P.O. Box 46941
Mt. Clemens, MI 48046
586-405-3555
Maritime Days
Holy Cross Church
610 S. Water St.
Marine City, MI 48039
810-765-3568
Maritime Festival
(Harbor Beach Chamber of Commerce)
P.O. Box 113
Harbor Beach, Michigan 48441
989-479-6477
11. Educational opportunities
Inland Seas Education Association Educational programs for youth and adults
aboard the “Schoolship”
100 Dame Street
Suttons Bay, MI 49682 PH: (231) 271-3077
Fax: (231) 271-3088 email: isea@greatlakeseducation.org •
web: http://greatlakeseducation.org/
Elderhostel
“Lake Michigan and Beyond: A Nautical Adventure”
11 Avenue de Lafayette
Boston, MA 02111
PH: 1-800-454-5768

http://www.elderhostel.org/

10. Harbor Walks
South Haven Harborwalk
Michigan Maritime Museum
260 Dyckman Avenue
South Haven, MI 49090
A series of historic markers are positioned throughout the walk from Lake Michigan and along the Black River.


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